三年生の授業
COURS DE TROISIÈME ANNÉE


国際関係論<国際科目群
INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
CONSTITUTIONALISM IN THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

CONSTITUTIONS
OFFICIAL WEBSITES
EXAM (REPORT)

List of topics for end of term reports
INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Choose and read an article 2. Sum-up its main arguments 3. Discuss one of these arguments in a reasoned manner
4. Use the WORD file (click here) 5. Submit your report by February 2nd, 2019 to the French Department Office (First Research Building, 2F)
Topics and Countries
 Articles
CONSTITUTIONALISM
(general perspective)
1. "Niccolò Machiavelli: Father of Modern Constitutionalism" by Mortimer N. S. Sellers, Ratio Juris, Vol. 28, No. 2, June 2015 [TEXT]
2. "Against Written Constitutionalism" by James Allan, Otago Law Review, Vol. 14, Issue 1, 2015 [TEXT]
3. "EU Constitutionalism in Flux: Is the Eurozone Crisis Precipitating Centralisation or Diffusion?" by Nicole Scicluna, European Law Journal, Vol. 18. No. 4, July 2012 [TEXT]
4. "Constitutionalism, Resistance and Militant Democracy" by José-Antonio Santos, Ratio Juris, Vol. 28, No. 3, September 2015 [TEXT]
5. "Multilevel Constitutionalism and the Crisis of Democracy in Europe" by Ingolf Pernice, European Constitutional Law Review, 11, 2015 [TEXT]
6. "The Perils of 'As If' European Constitutionalism" by Peter L. Lindseth, European Law Journal, Vol. 22, No. 5, September 2016 [TEXT]
7. "Religion and Constitutionalism: Oscillations Along a Continuum" by Paul Babie, Journal of Religious History, Vol. 39, No. 1, March 2015 [TEXT]
8. "Representative Democracy Across Levels? National Parliaments and EU Constitutionalism" by Davor Jancic,
Croatian Yearbook of European Law and Policy, Vol. 8, 2012 [TEXT]
9. "The Evolution and Ideology of Global Constitutionalism" by David S. Law and Mila Versteeg, California Law Review, Vol. 99, No. 5, October 2011 [TEXT]
10. "The Place of Constitutional Courts in the EU" by Jan Komárek, European Constitutional Law Review, 9, 2013 [TEXT]
FRANCE
(officially, The French Republic)

EU Member-State since 1957

1. "The Indivisibility of the French Republic as Political Theory and Constitutional Doctrine" by Eoin Daly, European Constitutional Law Review, 11, 2015 [TEXT]
2. "The Intersection between Constitution, Human Rights and the Environment: The French Charter for the Environment and the New ex post Constitutional Control in France" by David Marrani, Environmental Law Review, 16, 2014 [TEXT]
3. "Res judicata. The Ban on the Use of Ethnic and Racial Statistics in France" by Mathias Möschel, European Constitutional Law Review, 5, 2009 [TEXT]
4. "The Ambiguous Reach of Constitutional Secularism in Republican France: Revisiting the Idea of Laïcité and Political Liberalism as Alternatives" by Eoin Daly, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2012 [TEXT]
5. "Semi-Presidentialism à la française: the Recent Constitutional Evolution of the 'Two-Headed' Executive" by David Marrani, Constitutional Forum, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2009 [TEXT]
6. "The Fast Presidency? Nicolas Sarkozy and the Political Institutions of the Fifth Republic" by Alister Cole, Contemporary French and Francophone Studies, Vol. 16, No. 3, June 2012 [TEXT]
7. "Introduction: Parliamentary Representation in France" by Olivier Costa, The Journal of Legislative Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2013 [TEXT]
GERMANY
(officially, The Federal Republic of Germany)


EU Member-State since 1957
1. "Germany's German Constitution" by Russell A. Miller, Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2017 [TEXT]
2. "Germany vs. Europe: The Principle of Democracy in German Constitutional Law and the Troubled Future of European Integration" by Russell A. Miller, Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 54, No. 3, 2014 [TEXT]
3. "The Effects of German Unification on the Federal Chancellor's Decision-Making" by Karl-Rudolf Korte, German Politics, Vol. 11, Issue 3, December 2002 [TEXT]
4.
"On a Successful Road to 'More Federalism' in Länder Politics? The Case of Smoking Bans after Germany's Federalism Reform" by Iris Reus, German Politics, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2016 [TEXT]
5. "Germany's Basic Law and the Use of Force" by Russell A. Miller, Indiana Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2, Summer 2010 [TEXT]
6. "Precursors to International Constitutionalism: The Development of the German Constitutional Approach to International Law" by Tomer Broude and Andreas L. Paulus, Goettingen Journal of International Law, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012 [TEXT]
7. "Freedom of Expression in the Federal Republic of Germany" by Olivier Jouanjan, Indiana Law Journal, Vol. 84, 2009 [TEXT]
8. "The Race to Rationality Review and the Score of the German Federal Constitutional Court" by Klaus Messerschmidt, Legisprudence: International Journal for the Study of Legislation, Vol. 6, Issue 3, December 2012 [TEXT]
ITALY
(officially, The Italian Republic)


EU Member-State since 1957
1. "Choosing between the Government and the Regions: An Empirical Analysis of the Italian Constitutional Court Decisions" by Lucia Dalla Pellegrina and Nuno Garoupa, European Journal of Political Research, 52, 2013 [TEXT]
2. "Handle with Care! The Regional Charters and Italian Constitutionalism's 'Grey Zone'" by Giacomo Delledonne and Giuseppe Martinico, European Constitutional Law Review, 5, 2009 [TEXT]
3. "Italy's Forty Years' Crisis" by Mark Gilbert, Survival, Vol. 65. No. 5, October-November 2014 [TEXT]
4.
"The Law of Survival of the Political Class: An Analysis of the Italian Parliament (1946-2013)" by Silvia Fedeli, Francesco Forte and Leone Leonida, European Journal of Political Economy, 35, 2014 [TEXT]
5. "Between Procedural Impermeability and Constitutional Openness: The Italian Constitutional Court and Preliminary References to the European Court of Justice" by Filippo Fontanelli and Giuseppe Martinico, European Law Journal, Vol. 16, No. 3, May 2010 [TEXT]
BELGIUM
(officially, The Kingdom of Belgium)


EU Member-State since 1957
1. "Belgium. The Limits of Constitutional Dialogue for the Prevention of Reverse Discrimination. Constitutional Court, Judgment 11/2009 of 21 January 2009" by Peter Van Elsuwege and Stanislas Adam, European Constitutional Law Review, 5, 2009 [TEXT]
2. "Bye Bye Belgium: Remediating Flemish Nationalism in Prime Time" by Christophe Collard, Rethinking History, Vol. 18, No. 4, 2014 [TEXT]
3. "Constitutional Right to a Healthy Environment in Belgium" by Marc Martens, Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2007 [TEXT]
4.
"Democratic Legitimacy in the Bund or 'Federation of States': the Cases of Belgium and the EU" by Stefan Rummens and Stefan Sottiaux, European Law Journal, Vol. 20, No. 4, July 2014 [TEXT]
5. "Dynamics of Belgian Plurinational Federalism: a Small State under Pressure" by Céline Romainville, Boston College International & Comparative Law Review, 38, 2015 [TEXT]
6. "Evidence-based Judicial Review of Legislation in Divided States: the Belgian Case" by Patricia Popelier and Josephine De Jaegere, The Theory and Practice of Legislation, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2016 [TEXT]
7. "Sovereignty and Direct Democracy: Lessons from Constant and the Belgian Constitution" by Raf Geenens and Stefan Sottiaux, European Constitutional Law Review, 11, 2015 [TEXT]
8. "The Full Effect of EU Law and of Constitutional Review in Belgium and France after the Melki Judgment" by Marc Bossuyt and Willem Verrijdt, European Constitutional Law Review, 7, 2011 [TEXT]
9.
"The Subsidiarity Mechanisms as a Tool for Inter-level Dialogue in Belgium: On 'Regional Blindness' and Co-operative Flaws" by Patricia Popelier and Werner Vandenbruwaene, European Constitutional Law Review, 7, 2011 [TEXT]
THE NETHERLANDS
(officially, The Kingdom of the Netherlands)

EU Member-State since 1957
1. "Role-Switching in the Dutch Parliament: Reinvigorating Role Theory?" by Cynthia M. C. van Vonno, The Journal of Legislative Studies, Vol. 18, No. 2, June 2012 [TEXT]
2. "A Least Likely Case: Parliament and Citizens in the Netherlands" by Rudy B. Audeweg, The Journal of Legislative Studies, Vol. 18, No. 3-4, September-December 2012 [TEXT]
3. "Constitutional Review in the Netherlands: A Joint Responsibility" by Jurgen C.A. de Poorter, Utrecht Law Review, Vol. 9, Issue 2, March 2013 [TEXT]
4.
"Dutch Constitutional Law in a Globalizing World" by Gerhard van der Schyff and Anne Meuwese, Utrecht Law Review, Vol. 9, Issue 2, March 2013 [TEXT]
5. "Lawmaking and News Making: Different Worlds after all? A Study on News Coverage of Legislative Processes in the Netherlands" by Peter Van Aelst, Lotte Melenhorst, Joop Van Holsteyn and Joeri Veen, The Journal of Legislative Studies, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2015 [TEXT]
6. "Reference to Foreign Law in the Supreme Courts of Britain and the Netherlands: Explaining the Development of Judicial Practices" by Elaine Mak, Utrecht Law Review, Vol. 8, Issue 2, May 2012 [TEXT]
7. "The Role of Dutch Courts in the Protection of Fundamental Rights" by Nick S. Efthymiou and Joke C. de Wit, Utrecht Law Review, Vol. 9, Issue 2, March 2013 [TEXT]
LUXEMBOURG
(officially, The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg)


EU Member-State since 1957
1. "The Figure of Constitutional Law of the 'Integrated State': The Case of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg" by Jörg Gerkrath, European Constitutional Law Review, 10, 2014 [TEXT]
2. "Political Representation and Imagined Community: The Case of Luxembourg" by Michel Dormal, Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2012 [TEXT]
3. "Towards an Ever Closer Union Between Residents and Citizens? On the Possible Extension of Voting Rights to Foreign Residents in Luxembourg" by Michèle Finck, European Constitutional Law Review, 11, 2015 [TEXT]
THE UNITED KINGDOM
(officially, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)

EU Member-State since 1973
Withdrawal expected in 2019
1. "Fixing Democracy's Rules: Statute and Elections in the Constitution" by Heather Green, King's Law Journal, Vol. 28. No. 2, 2017 [TEXT]
2. "A Very Peculiar Revolution: Britain's Politics and Constitution, 1970-2011" by David Lipsey, The Political Quarterly, Vol. 82, No. 3, July-September 2011 [TEXT]
3. "Should Britain Have a Written Constitution?" by Vernon Bogdanor, Tarunabh Khaitan and Stefan Vogenauer, The Political Quarterly, Vol. 78. No. 4, October-December 2007 [TEXT]
4.
"Reforming the United Kingdom Constitution: Law, Convention, Soft Law" by Aileen McHarg, The Modern Law Review, Vol. 71. No. 6, 2008 [TEXT]
5. "Some Observations on the Queen, the Crown, the Constitution, and the Courts" by Warren J Newman, Review of Constitutional Studies, Vol. 22, Issue 1, 2017 [TEXT]
6. "Constitutional Legislation, European Union Law and the Nature of the United Kingdom's Contemporary Constitution" by Mark Elliott, European Constitutional Law Review, 10, 2014 [TEXT]
7. "The Quest for Constitutionalism in UK Public Law Discourse" by Jo Eric Khushal Murkens, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2009 [TEXT]
8. "The UK's Fundamental Constitutional Principle: Why the UK Parliament Is Still Sovereign and Why It Still Matters" by Michael Gordon, King's Law Journal, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2015 [TEXT]
9.
"Debunking the Idea of Parliamentary Sovereignty: The Controlling Factor of Legality in the British Constitution" by Stuart Lakin, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2008 [TEXT]
10. "Brexit, the Constitution and the Alternatives" by Vernon Bodganor, King's Law Journal, Vol. 27. No. 3, 2016 [TEXT]
11. "Beyond Brexit: What does Miller Mean for the UK's Power to Make and Break International Obligations?" by Helen Mountfield, Judicial Review, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2017 [TEXT]
12. "The UK's Sovereignty Situation: Brexit, Bewilderment and Beyond..." by Michael Gordon, King's Law Journal, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2016 [TEXT]
13. "Prerogative, Parliament and Creative Constitutional Adjudication: Reflections on Miller" by James Grant, King's Law Journal, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2017 [TEXT]
14.
"The Independence Case in Comparative Perspective" by Robert Liñeira and Daniel Cetrà, The Political Quarterly, Vol. 86, No. 2, April-June 2015 [TEXT]
IRELAND
(officially, The Republic of Ireland)

EU Member-State since 1973
1. "'Irish Republic', 'Eire' or 'Ireland'? The Contested Name of John Bull's Other Island" by John Coakley, The Political Quarterly, Vol. 80. No. 1, January-March 2009 [TEXT]
2. "Fatal Foetal Abnormality, Irish Constitutional Law, and Mellet v Ireland" by Fiona de Londras, Medical Law Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, December 2016 [TEXT]
3. "I Amend Therefore I Am? Discretionary Referenda and the Irish Constitution" by Timothy Collins, Brook Journal of International Law, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2010 [TEXT]
4.
"Irish Constitutional Reform" by Michael Williams, Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, Vol. 99, No. 393, Spring 2010 [TEXT]
5. "The Constitution, the Courts and the Legislature" by Peter D. Sutherland, Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, Vol. 103, No. 409, Spring 2014 [TEXT]
6. "Wrongful Birth, Wrongful Conception, and the Irish Constitution" by Brenda Daly, European Journal of Health Law, 12, 2005 [TEXT]
DENMARK
(officially, The Kingdom of Denmark)

EU Member-State since 1973
1. "All Votes are Equal? Significant Legislation and Party Competition in the Danish Folketing" by Martin Ejnar Hansen and Zoltán Fazekas, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2015 [TEXT]
2. "Birth Pangs: Greenland's Struggle For Independence" by Mina Said, Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review, Rev. 281, 2014 [TEXT]
3. "Developments in Danish Parliamentary Democracy: Accountability, Parties and External Constraints" by Erik Damgaard, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2004 [TEXT]
4.
"Political Ethics and Public Policy: Homosexuals between Moral Dilemmas and Political Considerations in Danish Parliamentary Debates" by Erik Albaek, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2003 [TEXT]
5. "The Danish Ombudsman. A National Watchdog with Selected Preferences" by Michael Gotze, Utrecht Law Review, Vol. 6, Issue 1, January 2010 [TEXT]
GREECE
(officially, The Hellenic Republic)

EU Member-State since 1981
1. "Historical Development of Constitutional Limitations of the Freedom of Expression in Greece" by Konstantinos Margaritis, Journal of Yasar University, Vol. 29, No. 8, 2013 [TEXT]
2. "A Constitutional Discussion of Participatory Democracy in Greece" by Konstantinos Margaritis, Constitutional Forum, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2014 [TEXT]
3. "Accountability and the Quality of Democracy in Greece" by Constantine P. Danopoulos, Mediterranean Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2015 [TEXT]
4.
"Change and Continuity: Comparing the Metaxas Dictatorship and the Colonels' Junta in Greece" by Vangelis Angelis, Mediterranean Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2016 [TEXT]
5. "From Karamanlis to Tsipras: The Greek Debt Crisis through Historical and Political Perspectives" by George Bistis, Mediterranean Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2016 [TEXT]
6. "Politics in the Depressed Republic: Transformation and Continuity in Greece during the Crisis" by Emmanouil Tsatsanis, Portuguese Journal of Social Science, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2016 [TEXT]
SPAIN
(officially, The Kingdom of Spain)

EU Member-State since 1986
1. "23 F - Redemption or Derailment of Spanish Democracy?" by Fernando León Solís, International Journal of Iberian Studies, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2007 [TEXT]
2. "Between the Sword and the Wall: Spain's Limited Options for Catalan Secessionism" by Ryan D. Griffiths, Pablo Guillen Alvarez and Ferran Martinez I Coma, Nations and Nationalism, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2015 [TEXT]
3. "Crafting Identities in a Multinational Context: Evidence from Catalonia" by María José Hierro, Nations and Nationalism, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2015 [TEXT]
4.
"Enforcing the Transition: The Demobilization of Collective Memory in Spain, 1979-1982" by Andrea Davis, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, Vol. 92, No. 6, 2015 [TEXT]
5. "From Nation-Building to Building Identification with Political Communities: Consequences of Political Decentralisation in Spain, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia, 1978-2001" by Enric Martínez-Herrera, European Journal of Political Research, 41, 2002 [TEXT]
6. "Spanish Monarchy and the Portuguese Republic: Two Routes to Democratization" by Federico Martínez Roda and Maria Inácia Rezola, Portuguese Journal of Social Science, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2016 [TEXT]
7. "The Concept of Gender Equality in Constitutional Spain" by Roberta Johnson, Revista de Estudios Hispánicos, 44, 2010 [TEXT]
8. "The Smooth Transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the Nationalities Question" by Daniele Conversi, National Identities, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2002 [TEXT]
9.
"To Be (a Part) of a Whole: Constitutional Patriotism and the Paradox of Democracy in the Wake of the Spanish Constitution of 1978" by Brad Epps, Revista de Estudios Hispánicos, 44, 2010 [TEXT]
10. "Framing the Court: Political Reactions to the Ruling on the Declaration of Sovereignty of the Catalan Parliament" by Pablo José Castillo Ortiz, Hague J Rule Law, 7, 2015 [TEXT]
PORTUGAL
(officially, The Portuguese Republic)

EU Member-State since 1986
1. "Portugal's Semi-Presidentialism (Re)considered: An Assessment of the President's Role in the Policy Process, 1976-2006" by Octavio Amorim Neto and Marina Costa Lobo, European Journal of Political Research, 48, 2009 [TEXT]
2. "Developing Links Despite the Parties - Parliament and Citizens in Portugal" by Cristina Leston-Bandeira and Tiago Tibúrcio, The Journal of Legislative Studies, Vol. 18, No. 3-4, September-December 2012 [TEXT]
3. "Dissent in Iberia: The Ideal Points of Justices on the Spanish and Portuguese Constitutional Tribunals" by Chris Hanretty, European Journal of Political Research, 51, 2012 [TEXT]
4.
"'Fascist Lackeys'? Dealing with the Police's Past during Portugal's Transition to Democracy (1974-1980)" by Diego Palacios Cerezales, Portuguese Journal of Social Science, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2007 [TEXT]
5. "Women in Portuguese Politics" by Maria Antónia Pires de Almeida, Portuguese Journal of Social Science, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2009 [TEXT]
6. "Presidential Elements in Government. The Portuguese Semi-Presidential System. About Law in the Books and Law in Action" by Ana Martins, European Constitutional Law Review, 2, 2006 [TEXT]
SWEDEN
(officially, The Kingdom of Sweden)

EU Member-State since 1995
1. "The Language of Religious Liberty in the Swedish Constitution of 1809" by David Eric Jessup, Scandinavian Studies, Vol. 82, No. 2, Summer 2010 [TEXT]
2. "From Majoritarian Democracy to Vertical Separation of Powers: Sweden and the European Union" by Karl-Göran Algotsson, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2001 [TEXT]
3. "Judicial Control in a Globalised Legal Order - A One Way Track? An Analysis of the Case C-263/08 Djurgården-Lilla Värtan" by Jane Reichel, Review of European Administrative Law, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2010 [TEXT]
4.
"Legal Autonomy Versus Regulatory Law: Customary Law in East Nordic Countries" by Kjell Å Modéer, Texas International Law Journal, Vol. 48, 2013 [TEXT]
5. "Monarchical Manoeuvres: Gender, Nation and the Boundary Problem in Post-War Swedish Constitutional Development" by Cecilia Åse, Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2013 [TEXT]
6. "Multi-Level Governance as 'Post-Constitutional' Politics: Subnational Actors and the Swedish Constitution" by David Feltenius, Local Government Studies, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2015 [TEXT]
7. "The 2011 Swedish Supreme Court Ruling: A Turning Point for Saami Rights" by Anett Sasvari and Hugh Beach, Nomadic Peoples, Vol. 15, Issue 2, 2011 [TEXT]
8. "The Internet and Parliamentary Democracy in Europe" by Xiudian Dai and Philip Norton, The Journal of Legislative Studies, Vol. 13, No. 3, September 2007 [TEXT]
9.
"The Swedish Constitution and Social Democratic Power: Measuring the Mechanical Effect of a Political Institution" by Ellen M. Immergut, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2002 [TEXT]
10. "The Swedish Riksdag as Scrutiniser of the Principle of Subsidiarity" by Anna Jonsson Cornell, European Constitutional Law Review, 12, 2016 [TEXT]
FINLAND
(officially, The Republic of Finland)

EU Member-State since 1995
1. "From Semi-Presidentialism to Parliamentary Government: Political and Constitutional Developments in Finland" by Jaakko Nousiainen, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2001 [TEXT]
2. "Sponsoring Private Member's Bills in Finland and Estonia: The Electoral Context of Legislative Behaviour" by Mihkel Solvak and Antti Pajala, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2016 [TEXT]
3. "The Changing Finnish Democracy: Stronger Parliamentary Accountability, Coalescing Political Parties and Weaker External Constraints" by Tapio Raunio, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2004 [TEXT]
4.
"The Continuous Process of Recognition and Implementation of the Sami People's Right to Self-Determination" by John B. Henriksen, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Vol. 21, No. 1, March 2008 [TEXT]
5. "The Euro Crisis and Its Constitutional Consequences for Finland: Is There Room for National Politics in EU Decision-Making?" by Päivi Leino and Janne Salminen, European Constitutional Law Review, 9, 2013 [TEXT]
6. "The Rising Power of the Prime Minister in Finland" by Heikki Paloheimo, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2003 [TEXT]
AUSTRIA
(officially, The Republic of Austria)

EU Member-State since 1995
1. "The Right and the Righteous? European Norms, Domestic Politics and the Sanctions Against Austria" by Michael Merlingen, Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1, March 2001 [TEXT]
2. "Two Opposing Paradigms of Continental European Constitutional Thinking: Austria and Germany" by András Jakab, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 58, Issue 4, October 2009 [TEXT]
3. "Deregulation and Democracy: The Austrian Case" by Monika Mokre, The Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society, Vol. 35, No. 4, Winter 2006 [TEXT]
MALTA
(officially, The Republic of Malta)

EU Member-State since 2004
1. "The International Legal Status of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta" by Karol Karski, International Community Law Review, 14, 2012 [TEXT]
2. "Integration and Disintegration: The Attempted Incorporation of Malta into the United Kingdom in the 1950s" by Simon C. Smith, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Vol. 35, No. 1, March 2007 [TEXT]
3. "Divorced from Political Reality: The New Limits of Ecclesiastical Power in Malta" by Dominic Fenech, The Round Table, Vol. 101. No. 3, June 2012 [TEXT]
CYPRUS
(officially, The Republic of Cyprus)

EU Member-State since 2004

1. "Cyprus from 1960 to EU Accession: The Case for Non-Territorial Autonomy" by Guy Dundas, Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2004 [TEXT]
2. "Presidential Power and Authority in the Republic of Cyprus" by James Ker-Lindsay, Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2006 [TEXT]
3. "Ethnic Federalism and Power Sharing in Cyprus: Motives, Constraints, and Preconditions" by Pavlos I. Koktsidis and Menelaos Apostolou, Mediterranean Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2016 [TEXT]
4.
"A Constitutional Convention for Cyprus: Costs, Benefits and Shortcomings" by Mehmet Karli, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 11, No. 4, December 2009 [TEXT]
5. "Constitution-Making, Constitutional Conventions and Conflict Resolution: Lesson Drawing for Cyprus" by Fernando Mendez and Vasiliki Triga, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 11, No. 4, December 2009 [TEXT]
6. "Reasons of State and the Constitutional Logic of Quasi-Stateness: The Post-Colonial Contradictions of Cyprus's Integration in the European Confederation" by Marios Constantinou, Postcolonial Studies, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2006 [TEXT]
7. "Walls in Cities: A Conceptual Approach to the Walls of Nicosia" by Resmiye Alpar Atun and Naciye Doratli, Geopolitics, 14, 2009 [TEXT]
ESTONIA
(officially, The Republic of Estonia)

EU Member-State since 2004
1. "Citizenship, Collective Identity and the International Impact on Integration Policy in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania" by Magdalena Solska, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 63, No. 6, August 2011 [TEXT]
2. "Constitutionality of the European Stability Mechanism in Estonia: Applying Proportionality to Sovereignty" by Carri Ginter, European Constitutional Law Review, 9, 2013 [TEXT]
3. "Europeanization, Democratic Deficit and the Constitutional Debate in Estonia" by Andro Kitus, Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, Vol. 21, No. 2, June 2008 [TEXT]
4.
"E-Voting in Estonia" by Wolfgang Dreschsler and Ulle Madise, Trames, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2002 [TEXT]
5. "Government Lawyers and Non-Judicial Constitutional Review in Estonia" by Nancy Maveety and Vello Pettai, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 57, No. 1, January 2005 [TEXT]
6. "Judicial Disagreement Need Not Be Political: Dissent on the Estonian Supreme Court" by Chris Hanretty, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 67, No. 6, August 2015 [TEXT]
7. "Religious Freedom and Legislation in Post-Soviet Estonia" by Ringo Ringvee, Brigham Young University Law Review, 2001 [TEXT]
8. "The 1998 Estonia-Sweden Maritime Boundary Agreement: Lessons to be Learned in the Area of Continuity and/or Succession of States" by Erik Franckx, Ocean Development and International Law, 31, 2000 [TEXT]
9.
"The 2007 Cyber Attacks against Estonia and International Law on the Use of Force: An Informational Approach" by Samuli Haataja, Law, Innovation and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2017 [TEXT]
10. "The EU's Rule of Law Promotion in Post-Soviet Europe: What Explains the Divergence between Baltic States and EaP Countries?" by Martin Mendelski, Eastern Journal of European Studies, Vol. 7, Issue 2, December 2016 [TEXT]
11. "The Permissible Scope of Legal Limitations on the Freedom of Religion or Belief in Estonia" by Merilin Kiviorg, Emory International Law Review, Vol. 19, 2005 [TEXT]
12. "The Position, Election and Powers of the President of the Republic of Estonia" by Tadej Dubrovnik, Lex Localis - Journal of Local Self-Government, Vol. 7, No. 1, January 2009 [TEXT]
13. "The Principle of Equality in the Estonian Constitution. A Systematic Perspective" by Madis Ernits, European Constitutional Law Review, 10, 2014 [TEXT]
LATVIA
(officially, The Republic of Latvia)

EU Member-State since 2004
1. "Dissolution of Parliament in Latvia: Legal Regulation and Practice" by Annija Karklina, Jurisprudence, 20(3), 2013 [TEXT]
2. "Equality Principle and Status of Predominant Religion (Traditional Religious Denomination) in the Baltic States" by Ringolds Balodis, Jurisprudence, 12(90), 2006 [TEXT]
3. "Rights of the Entirety of Citizens in Legislative Process in Latvia" by Annija Karklina, The Juridical Current, 57, June 2014 [TEXT]
4.
"The Recent Developments of Latvian Model of Church and State Relationship: Constitutional Changes without Revising of Constitution" by Ringolds Balodis, Jurisprudence, 3(117), 2009 [TEXT]
5. "The Use of European Constitutional Heritage in the Jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court when Interpreting the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia" by Aivars Endzins, Jurisprudence, 4(118), 2009 [TEXT]
LITHUANIA
(officially, The Republic of Lithuania)

EU Member-State since 2004
1. "Sovereignty of a Nation in the Parliamentary System of Lithuania: Problems and Proposals" by Saulius Arlauskas, Limes, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2010 [TEXT]
2. "Delimitation of the Powers of the Seimas and the Government: Some Aspects of Constitutional Doctrine" by Vytautas Sinkevicius, Jurisprudence, 1, 2010 [TEXT]
3. "Social Rights in the Jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of Lithuania" by Toma Birmontiene, Jurisprudence, 9, 2008 [TEXT]
4.
"The Role of Committee Systems in Post-Communist Legislatures: A Case Study of the Lithuanian Seimas" by Terry D. Clark, Egle Verseckaite and Alvidas Lukosaitis, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 58, No. 5, July 2006 [TEXT]
5. "The Role of Judicial Precedent in the Court Practice of Lithuania" by Dangute Ambrasiene and Solveiga Cirtautiene, Jurisprudence, 2, 2009 [TEXT]
6. "Reform of the Ombudsman Institutions in Lithuania" by Edita Ziobiene, Jurisprudence, 1, 2010 [TEXT]
7. "From Communist Regime to Liberal Democracy: The Evolution of the Legal System in Lithuania" by Olga Ivanivna Demenko, Jolanta Bieliauskaite, Vytautas Slapkauskas and Milda Vainiute, Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, Vol. 7, Issue 5, Fall 2016 [TEXT]
POLAND
(officially, The Republic of Poland)

EU Member-State since 2004
1. "Democratic Transition and Electoral Choice: The Legacy of One-Party Rule in Hungary and Poland" by Ethan J. Hollander, Journal of the Indiana Academy of the Social Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 2, Fall-Winter 2013 [TEXT]
2. "Effective Application of the Rule on Fundamental Change of Circumstances to Treaties Contravening the 1997 Polish Constitution" by Karol Karski and Tomasz Kaminski, Interntional Community Law Review, 17, 2015 [TEXT]
3. "Opposing Neoliberalism? Poland's Renewed Populism and Post-Communist Transition" by Stuart Shields, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2012 [TEXT]
4.
"Poland's European Vision. Religion, Secularism and Poland's Role in the Emergence of the Lisbon Treaty" by Janine Holc, The Polish Review, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2017 [TEXT]
5. "The Impact of Semi-Presidentialism on Democratic Consolidation in Poland and Ukraine" by Oleskii Sydorchuk, Demokratizatsiya, Vol. 22, Issue 1, Winter 2014 [TEXT]
6. "The 'Plurality of Functions' of the Polish Minister of Justice-General Prosecutor: Paradox or Adaptation?" by Tony Marguery, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 2007 [TEXT]
7. "The Polish Parliament and the Making of Politics through Abortion. Nation, Gender and Democracy in the 1996 Liberalization Amendment Debate" by Anne-Marie Kramer, International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2009 [TEXT]
HUNGARY
(officially, Hungary)

EU Member-State since 2004
1. "Kin-State Identity in the European Context: Citizenship, Nationalism and Constitutionalism in Hungary" by Agnes Batory, Nations and Nationalism, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2010 [TEXT]
2. "Two Eras of Hungarian Constitutionalism: From the Rule of Law to Rule by Law" by Nóra Chronowski and Márton Varju, Hague Journal of the Rule of Law, 8, 2016 [TEXT]
3. "Continuity with Deficiencies: The New Basic Law of Hungary" by András Jakab and Pál Sonnevend, European Constitutional Law Review, 9, 2013 [TEXT]
4.
"Hungary's Constitutional Transformation" by Kriszta Kovács and Gábor Attila Tóth, European Constitutional Law Review, 7, 2011 [TEXT]
5. "Hungary's New Constitution and Its New Law on Freedom of Religion and Churches: The Return of the Sovereign" by Renáta Uitz, Brigham Young University Law Review, Issue 3, 2012 [TEXT]
6. "Religion, Nationalism, History, and Politics in Hungary's New Constitution" by Laura Ymayo Tartakoff, Society, 49, 2012 [TEXT]
7.
"The Development of Freedom of the Media in a Newborn Democracy: The Hungarian Perspective" by András Koltay, Journal of Media Law, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2010 [TEXT]
8. "The Triple Crisis in Hungary: The 'Backsliding' of Hungarian Democracy after Twenty Years" by Attila Agh, Romanian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, Winter 2009 [TEXT]
SLOVENIA
(officially, The Republic of Slovenia)

EU Member-State since 2004
1. "The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia" by Mojca Mihelj Plesnicar and Miha Modic, Slovenian Law Review, Vol. 4, Issue1/2, December 2007 [TEXT]
2. "The Human Rights Ombudsman of the Republic of Slovenia" by Polona Tepina and Miha Modic, Slovenian Law Review, Vol. 5, Issue1/2, December 2008 [TEXT]
3. "Church-State Relations and the Legal Status of Religious Communities in Slovenia" by Dr. Lovro Sturm, Brigham Young University Law Review, Issue 2, Summer 2004 [TEXT]
4.
"Europeanization and Multi-Level Governance in Slovenia" by George Andreou and Ian Bache, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1, March 2010 [TEXT]
5. "Recent Developments in Democracy in Slovenia" by Alenka Krasovec and Lars Johannsen, Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 63, No. 5-6, 2016 [TEXT]
6. "Selected Decisions of the Slovenian Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court in 2007" by Rok Sonc, Slovenian Law Review, Vol. 4, Issue1/2, December 2007 [TEXT]
CZECHIA
(officially, The Czech Republic)

EU Member-State since 2004
1. "Cancellation of Early Elections by the Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic: Beginning of a New Concept of 'Protection of Constitutionality'" by Jan Kudrna, Jurisprudence, 4, 2010 [TEXT]
2. "Inherent Risks of the Pluralist Structure: Use of the Concept of National Constitutional Identity by the Polish and Czech Constitutional Courts" by Pola Cebulak, Croatian Yearbook of European Law and Policy, 8, 2012 [TEXT]
3. "Narrow Gate? The Process of Entering International and EU Agreements into the Constitutional Order of an EU Member State: The Example of the Czech Republic" by Jan Kysela, Pavel Ondrejek and Jana Ondrejkova, Croatian Yearbook of European Law and Policy, 7, 2011 [TEXT]
4.
"The Constitutional Debate: A One Man Show? Vaclav Klaus and the Constitutional Discourse in the Czech Republic" by Petra Rakusanova, Perspectives on European Politics and Society, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2007 [TEXT]
5. "The Czech Constitutional Court's Second Decision on the Lisbon Treaty of 3 November 2009" by Jan Komárek, European Constitutional Law Review, 5, 2009 [TEXT]
6. "The Question of Conducting Direct Elections of the President in the Czech Republic (A Live Issue for Already 20 Years)" by Jan Kudrna, Jurisprudence, Vol. 18, No. 4, 2011 [TEXT]
SLOVAKIA
(officially, The Slovak Republic)

EU Member-State since 2004
1. "Constitutionalism in East Central Europe? The Case of Slovakia under Meciar" by Christian Boulanger, East European Quarterly, XXXIII, No. 1, March 1999 [TEXT]
2. "Status Quo Bias or Institutionalisation for Reversibility?: The EU's Political Conditionality, Post-Accession Tendencies and Democratic Consolidation in Slovakia" by Geoffrey Pridham, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 60, No. 3, May 2008 [TEXT]
3. "Big Brother in a Small Country: The Subversion of the Rule of Law in Contemporary Slovakia" by Chandler Rosenberger, Human Rights Review, Vol. 1, Issue 1, October-November 1999 [TEXT]
4.
"Direct Presidential Elections in Slovakia - An Inspiration for the Czech Republic?" by Petr Just, New Presence: The Prague Journal of Central European Affairs, Summer 2001 [TEXT]
5. "Same-Sex Marriages (or Civil Unions/Registered Partnerships) in Slovak Constitutional Law: Challenges and Possibilities" by Marián Sekerák, Utrecht Law Review, Vol. 13, Issue 1, 2017 [TEXT]
6. "Radical-Right Narratives in Slovakia and Hungary: Historical Legacies, Mythic Overlaying and Contemporary Politics" by Bartek Pytlas, Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2013 [TEXT]
ROMANIA
(officially, Romania)

EU Member-State since 2007
1. "The Constitutional Court - An Innovation in the Romanian Constitutional System" by Daniela Cristina Valea, Juridical Current, Vol. 13, Issue 1, 2010 [TEXT]
2. "The Hungarian Status Law in Romania: Anatomy of an Inter-National Dispute" by Sergiu Z. Troie, Slovo, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 2004 [TEXT]
3. "The Dynamics of Europeanisation and Regionalisation: Regional Reform in Romania" by Ana Maria Dobre, Perspectives on European Politics and Society, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2009 [TEXT]
4.
"The Control of Constitutionality of the Initiatives for Revision of the Romanian Constitution" by Daniela Cristina Valea, Juridical Current, Vol. 14, Issue 4, 2011 [TEXT]
5. "A Historical Perspective on Romanian Constitutional and Electoral System" by Camelia Nicoleta Olteanu, Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2013 [TEXT]
6. "Provisions of the Romanian Constitution that Cannot Be Object to Revision of the Fundamental Law" by Adelin Ungureanu, Juridical Current, Vol. 19, Issue 4, 2016 [TEXT]
7. "Crowd-Sourced Legislation and Politics. The Legitimacy of Constitutional Deliberation in Romania" by Sergiu Gherghina and Sergiu Miscoiu, Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 63, 2016 [TEXT]
8. "Considerations about the Decrees and Other Legal Acts of the President of Romania" by Ioana Cristina Vida, Juridical Current, Vol. 17, Issue 2, 2014 [TEXT]
9.
"Aspects Concerning Rights and Social-Political Freedoms Stipulated by the Romanian Constitution" by Ingrid Nicolau and Raluca Oana Lupu, Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2017 [TEXT]
10. "Consecration of the Concept of 'Constitutional Democracy' and 'Supreme Values' Provided in Article 1 of the Romanian Constitution Republished and also through the Constitutional Court of Romania" by Daniela Cristina Valea, Juridical Current, Vol. 17, Issue 3, 2014 [TEXT]
11. "Considerations Regarding the Legal Regime of the State of Siege in Romania" by Alexandru Stoian, Revista Academiei Fortelor Terestre, Vol. 22, Issue 4, 2017 [TEXT]
12. "Decentralization in Romania: A Constant Failed Reform under Scrutiny from the Constitutional Limits Perspective" by Radu Carp and Andra Karla Sienerth, Jurisprudence, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2014 [TEXT]
13. "Human's Right to a Healthy Environment - A New Right within the Fundamental Rights Stated by the Romanian Constitution" by Roxana Matefi, Jus et Civitas, A Journal of Social and Legal Studies, Vol. I (LXV), No. 2, 2014 [TEXT]
14.
"The Competence of the Constitutional Court of Romania to Settle the Constitutional Conflicts between the Public Authorities" by Daniela Cristina Valea, Juridical Current, Vol. 13, Issue 3, 2010 [TEXT]
15. "The Contest among the Decisions of the Romanian Constitutional Court and the Decisions of the Romanian High Court of Cassation and Justice in the Recourse in the Interest of Law" by Lucian Chiriac, Juridical Current, Vol. 14, Issue 2, 2011 [TEXT]
16. "The Transition of Laws. Enforcing the Romanian Constitution. Case Study - Decision no. 66/26.02.2015 of the Romanian Constitutional Court" by Bogdan Istov, Journal of Public Administration and Law, Issue 8, 2016 [TEXT]
BULGARIA
(officially, The Republic of Bulgaria)

EU Member-State since 2007
1. "The Bulgarian Constitutional Court, 1991-1997: A Success Story in Context" by Venelin I. Ganev, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2003 [TEXT]
2. "An Attempt at Modernization: The New Bulgarian Legislation in the Field of Religious Freedom" by Atanas Krussteff, Brigham Young University Law Review, 575, 2001 [TEXT]
3. "Bulgaria's EU Accession and the Issue of Accountability. And End to Buck-Passing?" by Kjell Engelbrekt, Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 54, No. 4, July-August 2007 [TEXT]
4.
"From Sofia to Brussels - Corrupt Democratization in the Context of European Integration" by Gergana Bulanova, Romanian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2008 [TEXT]
5. "The Failure to Restore the Monarchy in Post-Communist Bulgaria" by Rossen Vassilev, Romanian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2009 [TEXT]
6. "Why Doesn't the Bulgarian Judiciary Prosecute Corruption?" by Maria Popova, Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 59, No. 5, September-October 2012 [TEXT]
CROATIA
(officially, The Republic of Croatia)

EU Member-State since 2013
1. "The Concept of Croatian Governance" by Zvonimir Lauc, Pravni Vjesnik, Vol. 27, Issue 1, 2011 [TEXT]
2. "Constitutional Implications of EU Membership: An Overview of Constitutional Issues in the Negotiating Process - The Croatian Perspective" by Irena Andrassy, Croatian Yearbook of European Law and Policy, 4, 2008 [TEXT]
3. "The Interpretative Effect of European Law in the Judgment of the Croatian Constitutional Court No. U-III-1410/2007" by Boris Stanic, Croatian Yearbook of European Law and Policy, 4, 2008 [TEXT]
4.
"The Legitimation of a Re-Enactment of Former Law and Temporal Effects of Judgments in a Constitutional Democracy (Comparative Study in the Light of Recent Jurisprudence of Croatia's Constitutional Court)" by Tímea Drinóczi and Philipp Schneider, Pravni Vjesnik, Vol. 32, Issue 3, 2016 [TEXT]
5. "The Absent Socioeconomic Cleavage in Croatia: A Failure of Representative Democracy?" by Danijela Dolenec, Croatian Political Science Review, Vol. 49, No. 5, 2012 [TEXT]
6. "The Croatian Political Community in Institutional Engineering" by Vedrana Baricevic, Treatises and Documents Journal of Ethnic Sudies, No. 64, April 2011 [TEXT]

Constitutions (in English)
ORAL PRESENTATIONS: 1. Check the group you belong to 2. Check the term planning (group assignments)
  HOW TO PRESENT: 1. Read the Constitution you have been assigned 2. Follow the guidelines (what and how to present?) 3. Think of issues you would like to discuss in class
4. Send your Powerpoint file to: courron [at] nanzan-u.ac.jp
Countries (common and official denomination)
 Constitutions
FRANCE [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The French Republic)
assented on Nov. 3, 1946 and enacted on May 3, 1947 (103 articles, never amended as of today) [TEXT]
GERMANY [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Federal Republic of Germany)
assented on July 17, 1948 (130 articles, amended 9 times as of Oct. 29, 1987)
amendment history: amended 9 times, fully rewritten 5 times in 1960, 1962, 1972, 1980 and 1987 [TEXT]
ITALY [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Italian Republic)
enacted on Sept. 8, 1948 (void)
enacted on Dec. 27, 1972 (172 articles, amended 4 times as of Apr. 1, 2013) [TEXT]
BELGIUM [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Kingdom of Belgium)
promulgated on Sept. 20, 1954 (void), Jan. 1975 (void) and Mar. 5, 1978 (void)
promulgated on Dec. 4, 1982 (138 articles, amended 4 times in 1988, 1993, 1999 and 2004 as of today) [TEXT]
THE NETHERLANDS [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Kingdom of The Netherlands)
assented on Dec. 25, 1946 and enacted on Dec. 25, 1947 (175 articles, amended 7 times as of 2005) [TEXT]
amendment history: amended 7 times in 1991, 1992, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000 and 2005
LUXEMBOURG [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg)
promulgated on Apr. 4, 1990 (160 articles, never amended as of today) [TEXT]
THE UNITED KINGDOM [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
enacted on Nov. 9, 1946 (void), Dec. 31, 1959 (void), Dec. 19, 1980 (void)
and Apr. 25, 1992 (amended once in 2001)
assented on Nov. 28, 2013 and enacted on Jan. 1, 2014 (120 articles, never amended as of today) [TEXT]
IRELAND [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Republic of Ireland)
20 constitutions or charters since the overthrow of absolute monarchy in 1932
enacted on Oct. 11, 1997 (void), Oct. 1, 2006 (void), Aug. 24, 2007 (void)
enacted on July 22, 2014 (48 sections, never amended as of today) [TEXT]
DENMARK [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (Kingdom of Denmark)
enacted on Sept. 21, 1993 (158 articles, amended once in 2004 as of today) [TEXT]
GREECE [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Hellenic Republic)
enacted in 1947 (void), in 1972 (suspended from 1988 to 2008 now void)
drafted on Apr. 9, 2008 and ratified on May 29, 2008 (457 articles, never amended as of today) [TEXT]

SPAIN [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Kingdom of Spain)
enacted in 1935 (void), in 1943 (void), in 1973 (void) and in 1986 (void)
crea
ted on Oct. 15, 1986 and ratified on Feb. 2, 1987 (306 sections in 18 articles, never amended as of today) [TEXT]
PORTUGAL [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Portuguese Republic)
enacted on Aug. 18, 1945, abrogated by the Federal Constitution of 1949 and the Provisional Constitution of 1950
restored on July 5, 1959
(37 articles (actually 72), amended in 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002) [TEXT]
SWEDEN [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Kingdom of Sweden)
ratified on Aug. 27, 1957 (15 Parts containing 230 articles and 13 schedules)
(amended in 1963, 1965 and 55 more times as of today) [TEXT]
FINLAND [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (Republic of Finland)
commenced on Aug. 9, 1965, enacted Dec. 22, 1965 and assented Dec. 23, 1965
3 Reprints: the 1980 Reprint, 1985 Revised Edition of the 1980 Reprint and the 1999 Reprint (in force to date)
(14 Parts containing 163 articles and 5 schedules, amended 46 times as of today) [TEXT]
AUSTRIA [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (Republic of Austria)
adopted on Nov. 26, 1949 and enacted on Jan. 26, 1950
(Preambule, 25 Parts containing 448 articles, 12 schedules and 5 appendices)
(amended 100 times as of today) [TEXT]
MALTA [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Republic of Malta)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
CYPRUS [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Republic of Cyprus)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
ESTONIA [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Republic of Estonia)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
LATVIA [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Republic of Latvia)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
LITHUANIA [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Republic of Lithuania)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
POLAND [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Republic of Poland)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
HUNGARY [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (Hungary)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
SLOVENIA [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Republic of Slovenia)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
CZECHIA [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Czech Republic)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
SLOVAKIA [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Slovak Republic)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
ROMANIA [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (Romania)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
BULGARIA [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Republic of Bulgaria)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]
CROATIA [summary] [wikipedia constitution]
     (The Republic of Croatia)
enacted on Sept. 20, 2015 (37 Parts containing 302 articles and 9 schedules)
(
never amended as of today) [TEXT]

List of official government sites
Countries
 Websites
FRANCE  [wikipedia country page]
Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
GERMANY  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
ITALY  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
BELGIUM  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
THE NETHERLANDS  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
LUXEMBOURG  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
THE UNITED KINGDOM  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
IRELAND  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
DENMARK  [wikipedia country page]
Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
GREECE  [wikipedia country page]
Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
SPAIN  [wikipedia country page]
Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
PORTUGAL  [wikipedia country page]
Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
SWEDEN  [wikipedia country page]
Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
FINLAND  [wikipedia country page]
Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
AUSTRIA  [wikipedia country page]
Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
MALTA  [wikipedia country page]
Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
CYPRUS  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
ESTONIA  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
LATVIA  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
LITHUANI [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
POLAND  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
HUNGARY  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
SLOVENIA  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
CZECHIA  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
SLOVAKIA  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
ROMANIA  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (lower / upper), Judiciary
BULGARIA  [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary
CROATI [wikipedia country page] Executive (Head of State or Premier / Government), Legislative (unicameral), Judiciary